Students: Tewodros (Teddy) Tassew, Anthony Ramos, Ricardo Gloria, Badea Tayea
TAs: Heng Zhao, Roger Fu
Mentors: Yingying Wu, Etienne Vouga
Shape analysis has been an important topic in the field of geometry processing, with diverse interdisciplinary applications. In 2005, Reuter, et al., proposed spectral methods for the shape characterization of 3D and 2D geometrical objects. The paper demonstrates that the Laplacian operator spectrum is able to capture the geometrical features of surfaces and solids. Besides, in 2006, Reuter, et al., proposed an efficient numerical method to extract what they called the “Shape DNA” of surfaces through eigenvalues, which can also capture other geometric invariants. Later, it was demonstrated that eigenvalues can also encode global properties like topological features of the objects. As a result of the encoding power of eigenvalues, spectral methods have been applied successfully to several fields in geometry processing such as remeshing, parametrization and shape recognition.
In this project, we present a discrete surface characterization method based on the extraction of the top smallest k eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. The project consists of three main parts: data preparation, geometric feature extraction, and shape classification. For the data preparation, we cleaned and remeshed well-known 3D shape model datasets; in particular, we processed meshes from ModelNet10, ModelNet40, and Thingi10k. The extraction of geometric features is based on the “Shape DNA” concept for triangular meshes which was introduced by Reuter, et al. To achieve this, we computed the Laplace-Beltrami operator for triangular meshes using the robust-laplacian Python library.
Finally, for the classification task, we implemented some machine learning algorithms to classify the smallest k eigenvalues. We first experimented with simple machine learning algorithms like Naive Bayes, KNN, Random Forest, Decision Trees, Gradient Boosting, and more from the sklearn library. Then we experimented with the sequential model Bidirectional LSTM using the Pytorch library to try and improve the results. Each part required different skills and techniques, some of which we learned from scratch and some of which we improved throughout the two previous weeks. We worked on the project for two weeks and received preliminary results. The GitHub repo for this project can be found in this GitHub repo.
The datasets used for the shape classification are:
1. ModelNet10: The ModelNet10 dataset, a subset of the larger ModelNet40 dataset, contains 4,899 shapes from 10 categories. It is pre-aligned and normalized to fit in a unit cube, with 3,991 shapes used for training and 908 shapes for testing.
2. ModelNet40: This widely used shape classification dataset includes 12,311 shapes from 40 categories, which are pre-aligned and normalized. It has a standard split of 9,843 shapes for training and 2,468 for testing, making it a widely used benchmark.
3. Thingi10k: Thingi10k is a large-scale dataset of 10,000 models from thingiverse.com, showcasing the variety, complexity, and quality of real-world models. It contains 72 categories that capture the variety and quality of 3D printing models.
For this project, we decided to use a subset of the ModelNet10 dataset to perform some preprocessing steps on the meshes and apply a surface classification algorithm due to the number of classes it has for analysis. Meanwhile, the ModelNet10 dataset is unbalanced, so we selected 50 shapes for training and 25 for testing per class.
Moreover, ModelNet datasets do not fully represent the surface representations of objects; self-intersections and internal structures are present, which could affect the feature extraction and further classification. Therefore, for future studies, a more careful treatment of mesh preprocessing is of primary importance.
After the dataset preparation, the preprocessing pipeline consists of some steps to clean up the meshes. These steps are essential to ensure the quality and consistency of the input data, and to avoid errors or artifacts. We used the PyMeshLab library, which is a Python interface to MeshLab, for mesh processing. The pipeline consists of the following steps:
1. Remove unreferenced vertices: This method gets rid of any vertices that don’t belong to a face.
2. Merge nearby vertices: This function combines vertices that are placed within a certain range (i.e., ε = 0.001).
3. Remove duplicate faces and faces with zero areas: It eliminates faces with the same features or no area.
4. Removes connected components that have fewer faces than a specified number (i.e. 10): The effectiveness and accuracy of the model can be enhanced by removing isolated mesh regions that are too small to be useful.
5. Repair non-manifold edges and vertices: It corrects edges and vertices that are shared by more than two faces, which is a violation of the manifold property. The mesh representation can become problematic with non-manifold geometry.
6. Compute the normal vectors: The orientation of the adjacent faces is used to calculate the normal vectors for each mesh vertex.
These steps allow us to obtain clean and consistent meshes that are ready for the remeshing process.
Adaptive Isotropic Remeshing
The quality of the meshes is one of the key problems with the collected 3D models. When discussing triangle quality, it’s important to note that narrow triangles might result in numerical inaccuracies when the Laplace-Beltrami operator is being computed. In that regard, we remeshed each model utilizing adaptive isotropic remeshing implemented in PyMeshLab. Triangles with a favorable aspect ratio can be created using the procedure known as isotropic remeshing. In order to create a smooth mesh with the specified edge length, the technique iteratively carries out simple operations like edge splits, edge collapses, and edge flips.
Adaptive isotropic remeshing transforms a given mesh into one with non-uniform edge lengths and angles, maintaining the original mesh’s curvature sensitivity. It computes the maximum curvature for the reference mesh, determines the desired edge length, and adjusts split and collapse criteria accordingly. This technique also preserves geometric details and reduces the number of obtuse triangles in the output mesh.
Adaptive Isotropic Remeshing on ModelNet Dataset
We applied the PyMeshLab function ms.meshing_isotropic_explicit_remeshing() to remesh the ModelNet10 dataset for this project. We experimented with different parameters of the isotropic remeshing algorithm from PyMeshLab to optimize the performance. The optimal parameters for time, type of remesh, and triangle quality were iterations=6, adaptive=True, and targetlen=pymeshlab.Percentage(1) respectively. The adaptive=True parameter enabled us to switch from uniform to adaptive isotropic remeshing. Figure 3 illustrates the output of applying adaptive remeshing to the airplane_0045.off mesh from the ModelNet40 training set. We also tried the pygalmesh.remesh_surface() function, but it was very slow and produced unsatisfactory results.
The Laplace-Beltrami Spectrum Operator
In this section, we introduce some of the basic theoretical foundations used for our characterization. Specifically, we define the Laplacian-Beltrami operator along with some of its key properties, explain the significance of the operator and its eigenvalues, and display how it has been implemented in our project.
Definition and Properties of the Laplace-Beltrami Operator
The Laplacian-Beltrami operator, often denoted as Δ, is a differential operator which acts on smooth functions on a Riemannian manifold (which, in our case, is the 3D surface of a targeted shape). The Laplacian-Beltrami operator is an extension of the Laplacian operator in Euclidean space, adjusted for curved surfaces on the manifold. Mathematically, the Laplacian-Beltrami operator acting on a function on a manifold is defined using the following formula:
where ∂i denotes the i-th partial derivative, g is the determinant of the metric tensor gij of the manifold and gij is the inverse of the metric tensor.
The Laplacian-Beltrami operator serves as a measure of how the value of f at a point deviates from its average value within infinitesimally small neighborhoods around that point. Therefore, the operator can be adopted to describe the local geometry of the targeted surface.
The Eigenvalue Problem and Its Significance
Laplacian-Beltrami operator is a second-order function applied to a surface, which could be represented as a matrix whose eigenvalues/eigenvectors provide information about the geometry and topology of a surface.
The significance of the eigenvalue problem as a result of applying the Laplace-Beltrami Operator includes:
- Functional Representation. The eigenfunctions corresponding to a particular geometric surface form an orthonormal basis of all functions on the surface, providing an efficient way to represent any function on the surface.
- Surface Characterization. A representative feature vector containing the eigenvalues creates a “Shape-DNA” of the surface, which captures the most significant variations in the geometry of the surface.
- Dimensionality Reduction. Using eigenvalues can effectively reduce the dimensionality of the data used, aiding in more efficient processing and analysis.
- Feature Discrimination. The geometric variations and differences between surfaces can be identified using eigenvalues. If two surfaces have different eigenvalues, they are likely to have different geometric properties. Surface eigenvalue analysis can be used to identify features that are unique to each surface. This can be beneficial in computer graphics and computer vision applications where it is necessary to distinguish between different surfaces.
Discrete Representation of Laplacian-Beltrami Operator
In the discrete setting, the Laplacian-Beltrami operator is defined on the given meshes. The Discrete Laplacian-Beltrami operator L can be defined and computed using different approaches. An often-used representation is using the cotangent matrix defined as follows:
Then L = M-1C where M is the diagonal mass matrix whose i-th entry is the shaded area as shown in Figure 4 for each vertex i. The Laplacian matrix is a symmetric positive-semidefinite matrix. Usually, L is sparse and stored as a sparse matrix in order not to waste memory.
A Voronoi diagram is a mathematical method for dividing a plane into areas near a collection of objects, each with its own Voronoi cell. It contains all of the points that are closer to it than any other object. Since its origin, engineers have utilized the Delaunay triangulation to maximize the minimum angle among possible triangulations of a fixed set of points. In a Voronoi diagram, this triangulation corresponds to the nerve cells.
In our experiments, we rescaled the vertices before computing the cotangent Laplacian. Rescaling mesh vertices changes the size of an object without changing its geometry. This Python function rescales a 3D point cloud by translating it to fit within a unit cube centered at the origin. It then scales the point cloud to have a maximum norm of 1, ensuring its center is at the origin. The function then finds the maximum and minimum values of each dimension in the input point cloud, computes the size of the point cloud in each dimension, and computes a scaling factor for each dimension. The input point cloud is translated to the center at the origin and scaled by the maximum of these factors, resulting in a point cloud with a maximum norm of 1.
Throughout this project, we used the robust-laplacian Python package to compute the Laplacian-Beltrami operator. This library deals with point clouds instead of triangle meshes. Moreover, the package can handle non-manifold triangle meshes by implementing the algorithm described in A Laplacian for Nonmanifold Triangle Meshes by Nicholas Sharp and Keenan Crane.
For the computation of the eigenvalues, we used the SciPy Python library. Let’s recall the eigenvalue problem Lv = λv, where λ is a scalar, and v is a vector. For a linear operator L, we called λ eigenvalue and v eigenvector respectively. In our project, the smallest k eigenvalues and eigenfunctions corresponding to 3D surfaces formed feature vectors for each shape, which were then used as input of machine learning algorithms for tasks such as shape classification.
The goal of this project was to apply spectral methods to surface classification using two distinct datasets: a synthetic one and ModelNet10. We used the Trimesh library to create some basic shapes for our synthetic dataset and performed remeshing on each shape. This was a useful step to verify our approach before working with more complicated data. The synthetic data had 6 classes with 50 instances each. The shapes were Annulus, Box, Capsule, Cone, Cylinder, and Sphere. We computed the first 30 eigenvalues on 50 instances of each class, following the same procedure as the ModelNet dataset so that we could compare the results of both datasets. We split the data into 225 training samples and 75 testing samples.
For the ModelNet10 dataset, we selected 50 meshes for the training set and 25 meshes for the testing set per class. In total, we took 500 meshes for the training set and 250 meshes for the testing set. After experimenting with different machine learning algorithms, the validation results for both datasets are summarized below in Table 1. The metric used for the evaluation procedure is accuracy.
|Models||Accuracy for Synthetic Dataset||Accuracy for ModelNet 10|
From Table 1 we can observe that the decision tree, random forest, and gradient boosting algorithms performed well on both datasets. These algorithms are suitable for datasets that have graphical features. We used the first 30 eigenvalues on 50 samples of each class for both the ModelNet and synthetic datasets, ensuring a fair comparison between the two datasets. Figure 5 shows the classification accuracy for each class using the confusion matrix.
We conducted two additional experiments using deep neural networks implemented in Pytorch, besides the machine learning methods we discussed before. The first experiment involved a simple MLP model consisting of 5 fully connected layers, each with the Batch Norm and ReLU activation functions. The model achieved an accuracy of 57% on the synthetic dataset and 15% on the ModelNet10 dataset for the testing set. The second experiment used a sequential model called Bidirectional LSTM with two layers. The model achieved an accuracy of 34% for the synthetic dataset and 33% for the ModelNet10 dataset based on the testing set. These are reasonable results since the ModelNet dataset contains noise, artifacts, and flaws, potentially affecting model accuracy and robustness. Examples include holes, missing components, uneven surfaces, and most importantly, the interior structures. All of these issues could potentially impact the overall performance of the models, especially for our classification purposes. We present the results in Table 2. The results indicate that the MLP model performed well on the synthetic dataset while the Bi-LSTM model performed better on the ModelNet10 dataset.
|Models||Accuracy for Synthetic Dataset||Accuracy for ModelNet 10|
We faced some challenges with the ModelNet10 dataset. The dataset had several flaws that resulted in lower accuracy when compared to the synthetic dataset. Firstly, we noticed some meshes with disconnected components, which caused issues with the computation of eigenvalues, since we would get one zero eigenvalue for each disconnected component, lowering the quality of the features computed for our meshes. Secondly, these meshes had internal structures, i.e., vertices inside the surface, which also affected the surface recognition power of the computed eigenvalues, as well as other problems related to self-intersections and non-manifold edges.
The distribution of eigenvalues in a connected manifold is affected by scaling. The first-k eigenvalues are related to the direction encapsulating the majority of the manifold’s variation. Scaling by α results in a more consistent shape with less variation along the first-k directions. On the other hand, scaling by 1/α causes the first-k eigenvalues to grow by α2, occupying a higher fraction of the overall sum of eigenvalues. This implies a more varied shape with more variance along the first-k directions.
To address the internal structures problem, we experimented with several state-of-the-art surface reconstruction algorithms for extracting the exterior shape and removing internal structures using the Ball Pivoting, Poisson Distribution methods from the Python PyMeshLab library, and Alpha Shapes. One of the limitations of ball pivoting is that the quality and completeness of the output mesh depend on the choice of the ball radius. The algorithm may miss some parts of the surface or create holes if the radius is too small. Conversely, if the radius is too large, the method could generate unwanted triangles or smooth sharp edges. Ball pivoting also struggles with noise or outliers and can result in self-intersections or non-manifold meshes.
By using only vertices to reconstruct the surface, we significantly reduced the computational time but the drawback was that the extracted surface was not stable enough to recover the entire surface. It also failed to remove the internal structures completely. In future work, we intend to address this issue and create an effective algorithm that can extract the surface from this “noisy” data. For this issue, implicit surface approaches show great promise.
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